Spermatophyta: Monocotyledonae:

Poaceae - Grass family


Description of the family

Annual or perennial herbs, rarely woody, often with rhizomes or stolons. Culms usually cylindric, usually hollow but solid at the nodes. Leaves: alternate, 2-ranked, simple, consisting of sheath, ligule and lamina; sheath surrounding the stem, usually open; ligule usually present at junction of sheath and lamina, membranous, a row of hairs or 0; lamina linear to filiform, rarely lanceolate or ovate. Inflorescence consisting of numerous spikelets arranged in a spike, raceme or panicle.

The basic unit of the inflorescence is the spikelet, consisting of a number of florets arranged distichously along an axis (rhachilla). At the base of the spikelet are 2 (rarely 0, 1 or more than 2) empty bracts (glumes). Each floret is enclosed within an outer bract (lemma) and an inner bracteole (palea). The palea is usually membranous and 2-keeled, the lemma is usually tougher and often awned. The lemma, palea and flowering parts are together called the floret.

Flowers usually bisexual, but sometimes unisexual. Perianth represented by 2(–3) minute hyaline fleshy scales (lodicules). The base of the spikelet or floret may have a horny prolongation downwards (callus). Stamens (1–)3(–6); anthers versatile. Ovary superior, 1-locular with 1 ovule often attached to the adaxial side of the loculus, to a point or line visible in fruit as the hilum. Styles (1–)2(–3), generally with plumose stigmas. Fruit 1-seeded, usually a caryopsis, rarely with seed free from the pericarp.

Worldwide: 668 genera and 9,500 species, cosmopolitan, but especially tropical and northern temperate sub-arid areas.

Britain: 164 genera and 777 taxa.

Dactylis glomerata

Links to genera:     View: living plant images - herbarium specimen images - all images for this family

× Agropogon P. Fourn.
Aegilops L.
Agropyron Gaertn.
Agrostis L.
Agrostis ???
Aira L.
Alopecurus L.
Ammochloa Boiss.
Ammophila Host
Andropogon L.
Anisantha K. Koch
Anthoxanthum L.
Apera Adans.
Aristida L.
Arrhenatherum P. Beauv.
Arthraxon P. Beauv.
Arundo L.
Astrebla F. Muell.
Avena L.
Axonopus P. Beauv.
Beckmannia Host
Boissiera Hochst. ex Steud.
Bothriochloa Kuntze
Bouteloua Lag.
Brachiaria (Trin.) Griseb.
Brachypodium P. Beauv.
Briza L.
Bromopsis (Dumort.) Fourr.
Bromus L.
Calamagrostis Adans.
Castellia Tineo
Catabrosa P. Beauv.
Catapodium Link
Cenchrus L.
Ceratochloa DC. & P. Beauv.
Chasmanthium Link
Chimonobambusa Makino
Chloris Sw.
Chondrosum Desv.
Coix L.
Cornucopiae L.
Cortaderia Stapf
Corynephorus P. Beauv.
Crithopsis Jaub. & Spach
Crypsis Aiton
Ctenopsis De Not.
Cutandia Willk.
Cynodon Rich.
Cynosurus L.
Dactylis L.
Dactyloctenium Willd.
Danthonia DC.
Dasypyrum (Coss. & Durieu) T. Durand
Deschampsia P. Beauv.
Desmazeria Dumort.
Dichanthium Willemet
Dichelachne Endl.
Digitaria Haller
Dissanthelium Trin.
Echinaria Desf.
Echinochloa P. Beauv.
Echinopogon P. Beauv.
Ehrharta Thunb.
Eleusine Gaertn.
Elymus L.
Elytrigia Desv.
Enneapogon Desv. ex P. Beauv.
Enteropogon Nees
Eragrostis Wolf
Eremopoa Roshev.
Eremopyrum (Ledeb.) Jaub. & Spach
Eriochloa Kunth
Fargesia Franch.
Festuca L.
Gastridium P. Beauv.
Gaudinia P. Beauv.
Glyceria R. Br.
Hainardia Greuter
Harpachne Hochst. ex A. Rich.
Helictotrichon Besser ex Schult. & Schult. f.
Hierochloe R. Br.
Holcus L.
Homopholis C.E. Hubb.
Hordelymus (Jess.) Jess. & Harv.
Hordeum L.
Hyparrhenia Fourn.
Hystrix Moench
Koeleria Pers.
Lagurus L.
Lamarckia Moench
Leersia Sw.
Leptochloa P. Beauv.
Leymus Hochst.
Lolium L.
Melica L.
Melinis P. Beauv.
Mibora Adans.
Milium L.
Miscanthus Andersson
Molinia Schrank
Muhlenbergia Schreb.
Munroa Torr.
Narduroides Rouy
Nardus L.
Nassella (Trin.) E. Desv.
Ortachne Nees ex Steud.
Oryzopsis Michx.
Panicum L.
Parapholis C.E. Hubb.
Paspalidium Stapf
Paspalum L.
Pennisetum Rich.
Pentaschistis (Nees) Spach
Phalaris L.
Phleum L.
Phragmites Adans.
Phyllostachys Siebold & Zucc.
Piptochaetium J. Presl
Pleioblastus Nakai
Poa L.
Polypogon Desf.
Pseudosasa Makino ex Nakai
Psilurus Trin.
Puccinellia Parl.
Rostraria Trin.
Rytidosperma Steud.
Sasa Makino & Shib.
Sasaella Makino
Schedonnardus Steud.
Schismus P. Beauv.
Schmidtia Steud. ex J.A. Schmidt
Sclerochloa P. Beauv.
Secale L.
Semiarundinaria Nakai
Sesleria Scop.
Setaria P. Beauv.
Snowdenia C.E. Hubb.
Sorghum Moench
Spartina Schreb.
Sphenopus Trin.
Sporobolus R. Br.
Steinchisma Raf.
Stipa L.
Taeniatherum Nevski
Thamnocalamus Munro
Thyridolepis S.T. Blake
Tragus Haller
Tribolium Desv.
Tricholaena Schrad. ex Schult. & Schult. f.
Tridens Roem. & Schult.
Triplachne Link
Triraphis R. Br.
Trisetaria Forssk.
Trisetum Pers.
Triticum L.
Urochloa P. Beauv.
Ventenata Koeler
Vulpia C.C. Gmel.
Vulpiella (Batt. & Trab.) Andr.
Wangenheimia Moench
Yushania Keng f.
Zea L.
Zingeria P.A. Smirn.
Zizania L.

Other sources of information about Poaceae:

External websites:

GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network) taxonomy for plants report for Poaceae
Google: Web - Images - Scholar

Copyright: Mark Hyde, 2008-24

Hyde, M.A. (2024). UK Flora: Family page: Poaceae.
https://www.ukflora.info/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=211, retrieved 19 July 2024

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